Diabetes Mellitus; Definition, Quick Facts, Symptoms & Types

Diabetes Mellitus Definition

Diabetes mellitus is medically defined as a group of metabolic diseases typified by high blood sugar (glucose) levels that are precipitated by defects in insulin secretion, its action, or both. Diabetes mellitus, also often referred to as diabetes was first noted as a disease associated with the situation termed ‘sweet urine’ and excessive muscle loss in prehistoric times.

Science reveals that elevated levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia) lead to the spillage of glucose into the urine, hence the reference to the term sweet urine.

It’s critical to emphasize the significance of insulin at this point. By default, blood glucose levels are tightly controlled by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas.

Insulin lowers/regulates the blood glucose level in the body. In situations when the blood glucose rises (for example, after the consumption of a meal), insulin is released from the pancreas to normalize the glucose level by promoting the uptake of glucose into body cells.

However, in individuals with diabetes, the ability of the body to regulate or lower the blood glucose level is impaired. In other words, the absence of insufficient production of or lack of response to insulin causes hyperglycemia. Medical experts note that Diabetes is a chronic medical condition. This means that although Diabetes is treatable/manageable, patients will often have the condition for the duration of their lives.